Vol.12, No.4, November 2023.                                                                                                                                                                               ISSN: 2217-8309

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        eISSN: 2217-8333


TEM Journal



Association for Information Communication Technology Education and Science

Potential Use of Biomass Waste as a Sustainable Energy Source in the Future: A Case Study


Siriphat Sirikunpitak, Issara Chanakaewsomboon, Anil Kumar, Apichat Choomkong, Asad Ullah Baoch, Kuaanan Techato


© 2023 Kuaanan Techato, published by UIKTEN. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Citation Information: TEM Journal. Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 2573-2582, ISSN 2217-8309, DOI: 10.18421/TEM124-69 November 2023.


Received: 13 September 2023.

Revised:   01 October 2023.
Accepted: 17 October 2023.
Published: 27 November 2023.




Mangroves have been degraded and converted for decades due to a multitude of factors, ranging from human activity to natural perturbations such as disasters and global warming. Experiments were conducted to determine the impact of fly ash (FA) on the growth of Rhizophora apiculata Blume's (R. apiculate). A completely randomised design (CRD) was employed with D as the control, and nine treatment soil amendments were created from abandoned shrimp pond sediment with rubberwood fly ash (RWFA). These amendments were made by mixing three separate FA samples (A, B, and C) in the ratios of 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75, respectively (A1-A3, B1-B3, and C1-C3), using a total of 200 R. apiculata specimens. The experiment revealed that the addition of FA and its combination had a significant effect on promoting the growth of R. apiculate and improved nutrient availability and retention in the soil. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the effect of Fly Ash (FA) and its combination significantly influence the growth of R. apiculate, impacting the total heights and number of leaves. The most beneficial effect the results of the experiment demonstrate that the effect of fly ash (FA) and its combination significantly influence the growth of R. apiculate, affecting the total height and number of leaves. The most beneficial effects were observed when the optimal proportion of each type of soil amendment was used. The study holds substantial benefits: it introduces a method for improving the soil of shrimp farms through the utilisation of rubberwood fly ash (RWFA) and serves essential nutrients to mangroves. Moreover, implementing this plantation technique can aid in protecting against coastal erosion.


Keywords – Rubberwood ash, potting soil, mangroves, mangrove restoration, soil amendment.



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