Vol.12, No.3, August 2023.                                                                                                                                                                               ISSN: 2217-8309

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        eISSN: 2217-8333


TEM Journal



Association for Information Communication Technology Education and Science

Liquid Characterization of 2 GHz Complimentary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR) for Water Quality Applications


Muhammad Faris Sapuri, Mohd Khairil Adzhar Mahmood, Nur Emileen Abd Rashid, Nor Ayu Zakaria, Siti Amalina Enche Ab Rahim, Zuhani Ismail Khan


© 2023 Siti Amalina Enche Ab Rahim , published by UIKTEN. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Citation Information: TEM Journal. Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1397-1406, ISSN 2217-8309, DOI: 10.18421/TEM123-20, August 2023.


Received: 03 April 2023.

Revised:   18 May 2023.
Accepted: 19 July 2023.
Published: 28 August 2023.




This study describes a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR)-based planar microwave sensor. Its capability in detecting several samples which are based on the usual water contaminant in Malaysia was investigated. The CSRR sensor was designed with an unloaded resonant frequency of 2.0 GHz, and it was fabricated on an FR-4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mm and a dielectric constant of 4.3. The S-parameter responses of the sensor were measured under two conditions; i) unloaded and ii) loaded. For the latter, samples of tap water, salt water, isopropyl alcohol, filtered water and cooking oil were used to load the resonant element of the CSRR. The measurement result of unloaded CSRR shows that the designed sensor resonates at 1.99 GHz, which is in line with the simulation. The measurement results also showed that the presence of all samples caused the resonant frequency of the CSRR to shift, with filtered water and cooking oil showing the biggest frequency shifts (0.84 GHz and 0.96 GHz, respectively). A sensitivity analysis of the CSRR was carried out and it shows that it achieves 0.25% sensitivity. The proposed sensor may be a useful substitute for pricey commercial sensors for applications involving water quality because of the inexpensive materials and ease of fabrication.


Keywords –Complementary split-ring resonator, microwave sensor, water quality assessment.



Full text PDF >  



Copyright © 2023 UIKTEN
Copyright licence: All articles are licenced via Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence