Vol.12, No.1, February 2023.                                                                                                                                                                              ISSN: 2217-8309

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        eISSN: 2217-8333


TEM Journal



Association for Information Communication Technology Education and Science

The Disparity Between Urban andRural Areas in Citizen Satisfaction with Local Public Services


José-Fernando Romero-Subia, Juan-Antonio Jimber del Rio, María-Salomé Ochoa-Rico, ArnaldoVergara-Romero


© 2023 Arnaldo Vergara-Romero, published by UIKTEN. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Citation Information: TEM Journal. Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 275-284, ISSN 2217-8309, DOI: 10.18421/TEM121-34, February 2023.


Received: 01 October 2022.

Revised:   14 November 2022.
Accepted:  29 November 2022.
Published: 27 February 2023.




The disparities in access to public assistances between rural and urban areas are analyzed in this study, corresponding to the intensity in which the constructs are related to expected quality, perceived quality and perceived value as influential factors in citizen satisfaction and loyalty. In Guayaquil, a survey is carried out at the household level, 428 valid questionnaires are obtained in the rural area of Tenguel and 521 Valid questionnaires in the urban area of Tarqui, applyingto the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The research used a Structural Equation model (SEM) to evaluate the hypotheses raised, if they observe significant differences in citizen perception between inhabitants of urban and rural areas about the quality of community services, this as a determining cause in the level of citizen satisfaction and loyalty to choose their municipal authorities. The multigroup analysis allowed to identify inequalities in the observation of the quality of municipal or local communityassistances between rural and urban areas; the findings are considered to local public administrators for the design of public policy aimed at improving levels of citizen satisfaction and loyalty.


Keywords –Citizen satisfaction, urban and rural disparities, loyalty, multigroup analysis, local governments.



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