Vol.10, No.4, November 2021.                                                                                                                                                                           ISSN: 2217-8309

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          eISSN: 2217-8333


TEM Journal



Association for Information Communication Technology Education and Science

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Model for Hydroponics pH Control System


Mohammad Farid Saaid, Ahmad Ihsan Mohd Yassin, Nooritawati Md Tahir


© 2021 Mohammad Farid Saaid, published by UIKTEN. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Citation Information: TEM Journal. Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 1694-1699, ISSN 2217-8309, DOI: 10.18421/TEM104-27, November 2021.


Received: 25 August 2021.

Revised:  12 November 2021.
Accepted: 19 November 2021.
Published: 26 November 2021.




Nutrients are essential to optimise plant growth. However, adding fertiliser changes the pH of the nutrition solution. This would impact plant growth as each plant types requires a specific pH range to thrive. Due to the nonlinearity characteristics, pH neutralisation adjustment is difficult but essential. In addition, alkaline solutions are not completely dissociated due to the presence of acid. For these reasons, a mathematical model to estimate the solution's pH would help improve the alkaline and acidic delivery accuracy. This study represents a pH water neutralisation behaviour using Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm (PSO). The project begins with input and output data acquisition leading to the development of the PSO model. The model fit and residual distribution have also been analysed for this model. The model's performance was accepted based on a correlation test because the lag signal exceeded 95% of the confidence interval. The model also recorded a very minimal error, and this proved that a good agreement is established between the predicted and actual pH values.


Keywords –PSO model, pH level, hydroponics, correlation test, acid and alkaline solution.



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