Vol.9, No.1, February 2020.                                                                                                                                                                           ISSN: 2217-8309

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        eISSN: 2217-8333


TEM Journal



Association for Information Communication Technology Education and Science

Constructing Mathematical Concepts through External Representations Utilizing Technology:
An Implementation in IRT Course


M. Marsigit, Heri Retnawati, Ezi Apino, Rusgianto H. Santoso, Janu Arlinwibowo , Agus Santoso, R. Rasmuin


© 2020 Heri Retnawati, published by UIKTEN. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Citation Information: TEM Journal. Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 317‐326, ISSN 2217-8309, DOI: 10.18421/TEM91-44, February 2020.


Received: 07 July 2019.

Revised:   06 November 2019.
Accepted:  10 November 2019.
Published: 28 February 2020.




One of useful theories in the educational and psychological assessment is an item response theory (IRT) that applies mathematical concepts. For students, constructing math concept to solve problems in IRT is very difficult and utilizing technology such as computer and software will help. In a qualitative approach, this study described how students constructed mathematical concepts in the item response theory using external mathematical representations integrated with technology. The participants were 19 graduate students. Data were collected through observation in 5 courses. The data were analyzed using Milles and Hubberman technique through reduction, display, and verification. The results showed that by using external representations and providing cases, presenting data in tables, the collaboration among the students to solve problems, create and demonstrate graphics utilizing technology to construct mathematical concepts, utilize the context assessment related to mathematical concepts, and also use graphs could support students’ thinking for constructing mathematical concepts in IRT.


Keywords –External representation, constructing mathematical concepts, item response theory, technology integration.



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